Sand Casting Vocabulary

  • Backing sand
    The bulk of the sand is in the flask. The sand is compacted on top of the facing sand that covers the pattern.
  • Binder
    The bonding agent is used as an additive to mold or core sand to impart strength or plasticity in a “green” or dry state.
  • Burn-on sand
    Sand adhering to the surface of the casting is extremely difficult to remove.
  • Cleaning
    Remove runners, risers, flash, surplus metal, and sand from a casting.
  • Cold shut
    A surface imperfection due to unsatisfactory fusion of metal.
  • Cope
    The top half of a horizontally parted mold.
  • Draft
    Taper on the vertical sides of a pattern or core box that permits the core or sand mold to be removed without distorting or tearing the sand.
  • Drag
    The bottom half of a horizontally parted mold.
  • Facing sand
    The sand surrounds the pattern that produces the surface in contact with the molten metal.
  • Flask
    A rigid metal or wood frame is used to hold the sand of which a mold is formed and usually consists of two parts: cope and drag.
  • Foundry returns
    Metal (of known composition) in the form of gates, sprues, runners, risers and scrapped castings returned to the furnace for remelting.
  • Gate (in-gate)
    The portion of the runner where the molten metal enters the mold cavity.
  • Green sand
    Moist clay-bonded molding sand.
  • Ladle or Crusible
    A container used to transfer molten metal from the furnace to the mold.
  • Mold
    Normally consists of a top and bottom form, made of sand, metal or any other investment material. It contains the cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a casting of definite shape.
  • Mold cavity
    The impression in a mold produced by removal of the pattern. It is filled with molten metal to form the casting.
  • Parting line
    The line showing the separation of the two halves of the mold.
  • Pattern
    The wood, metal, foam or plastic shape used to form the cavity in the sand. A pattern may consist of one or many impressions and would normally be mounted on a board or plate complete with a runner system.
  • Pattern draft
    The taper allowed on the vertical faces of a pattern to permit easy withdrawal of the pattern from the mold or die. (See draft.)
  • Runner system or gating
    The set of channels in a mold through which molten metal is poured to fill the mold cavity. The system normally consists of a vertical section (downgate or sprue) to the point where it joins the mold cavity (gate) and leads from the mold cavity through vertical channels.
  • Inclusions
    Cavities or surface imperfections on a casting caused by sand or other material washing into the mold cavity.
  • PPE
    Personal Protective Equiment. 
  • Shakeout
    The process of separating the solidified casting from the mold material.
  • Sprue
    The channel, usually vertical, that the molten metal enters (Fig. 3).
  • Vent
    An opening or passage in a mold or core to facilitate the escape of gases when the mold is poured.