- Backing sand
The bulk of the sand is in the flask. The sand is compacted on top of the facing sand that covers the pattern.
The bonding agent is used as an additive to mold or core sand to impart strength or plasticity in a “green” or dry state.
- Burn-on sand
Sand adhering to the surface of the casting is extremely difficult to remove.
Remove runners, risers, flash, surplus metal, and sand from a casting.
- Cold shut
A surface imperfection due to unsatisfactory fusion of metal.
The top half of a horizontally parted mold.
Taper on the vertical sides of a pattern or core box that permits the core or sand mold to be removed without distorting or tearing the sand.
The bottom half of a horizontally parted mold.
- Facing sand
The sand surrounds the pattern that produces the surface in contact with the molten metal.
A rigid metal or wood frame is used to hold the sand of which a mold is formed and usually consists of two parts: cope and drag.
- Foundry returns
Metal (of known composition) in the form of gates, sprues, runners, risers and scrapped castings returned to the furnace for remelting.
- Gate (in-gate)
The portion of the runner where the molten metal enters the mold cavity.
- Green sand
Moist clay-bonded molding sand.
- Ladle or Crusible
A container used to transfer molten metal from the furnace to the mold.
Normally consists of a top and bottom form, made of sand, metal or any other investment material. It contains the cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a casting of definite shape.
- Mold cavity
The impression in a mold produced by removal of the pattern. It is filled with molten metal to form the casting.
- Parting line
The line showing the separation of the two halves of the mold.
The wood, metal, foam or plastic shape used to form the cavity in the sand. A pattern may consist of one or many impressions and would normally be mounted on a board or plate complete with a runner system.
- Pattern draft
The taper allowed on the vertical faces of a pattern to permit easy withdrawal of the pattern from the mold or die. (See draft.)
- Runner system or gating
The set of channels in a mold through which molten metal is poured to fill the mold cavity. The system normally consists of a vertical section (downgate or sprue) to the point where it joins the mold cavity (gate) and leads from the mold cavity through vertical channels.
Cavities or surface imperfections on a casting caused by sand or other material washing into the mold cavity.
Personal Protective Equiment.
The process of separating the solidified casting from the mold material.
The channel, usually vertical, that the molten metal enters (Fig. 3).
An opening or passage in a mold or core to facilitate the escape of gases when the mold is poured.
Sand Casting Vocabulary
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